France, near its border with Germany. Geographically, the Vosges Mountains are wholly in France, far above the Col de Saverne separating them from the Palatinate Forest in Germany. The latter area logically continues the same Vosges geologic structure but traditionally receives vosges, guide géologique PDF different name for historical and political reasons. Belfort to the river valley of the Bruche.
The rounded summits of the Hautes Vosges are called ballons in French, literally « balloons ». Col de Saverne and the source of the Lauter. The French department of Vosges is named after the range. From a geological point of view, a graben at the beginning of the Paleogene period caused the formation of Alsace and the uplift of the plates of the Vosges, in eastern France, and those in the Black Forest, in Germany. The Vosges in their southern and central parts are called the Hautes Vosges. These consist of a large Carboniferous mountain eroded just before the Permian Period with gneiss, granites, porphyritic masses or other volcanic intrusions.
The Vosges is greatly similar to the corresponding range of the Black Forest on the other side of the Rhine: both lie within the same degrees of latitude, have similar geological formations, and are characterized by forests on their lower slopes, above which are open pastures and rounded summits of a rather uniform altitude. Two nature parks lie within the Vosges: the Ballons des Vosges Nature Park and the Northern Vosges Regional Nature Park. Meteorologically, as a consequence of the Foehn effect the difference between the eastern and western mean slopes of the range is very marked. The main air streams come generally from the west and southwest, so the Alsatian central plains just under the Hautes-Vosges receive much less water than the south-west front of the Vosges Mountains. Bruche d’Andlau and the Bruche which have as tributaries other, shorter but sometimes powerful streams coming like the last two from the Vosges Mountains. In the High Moselle and Meurthe basins, moraines, boulders and polished rocks testify to the former existence of glaciers which once covered the top of the Vosges.
The Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg in the Vosges was built during the 12th century. Later, German speakers referred to the same region as Vogesen or Wasgenwald. Over the centuries, settlement increased gradually, as was typical for a forested region. On the lower heights and buttresses of the main chain on the Alsatian side are numerous castles, generally in ruins, testifying to the importance of this crucial crossroads of Europe, violently contested for centuries.
During the French Revolutionary Wars, on 13 July 1794, the Vosges were the scene of the Battle of the Vosges. From 1871 to 1918, they formed the main border line between France and the German Empire. During the First World War, the Vosges were the scene of severe and almost continuous fighting. In pre-Roman times, the Vosges was empty of settlements or was colonized and dominated by the Celts. After the Roman era, Alemanni also settled in the east, and Franks in the northwest. This article needs additional citations for verification. René Bastien, Histoire de Lorraine, éditions Serpenoise, Metz, 1991, 224 pages.
Tome 1 à 4 et index alphabétique général, Auguste Picard éditeur, Paris, 1924. Anastaltic impression in Belgium by the éditions Culture et Civilisation, Bruxelles, 1978. L’Alsace et les Vosges, géologie, milieux naturels, flore et faune, La bibliothèque du naturaliste, Delachaux et Niestlé, Lausanne, 1998, 352 pages. Annales de la Société d’Émulation des Vosges, Epinal, from 1826. Guide des sources de la Grande Guerre dans le département des Vosges, Conseil général de Vosges, Epinal, 2008, 296 pages. Magali Delavenne, Jean-Claude Fombaron, Philippe Nivet, Yann Prouillet, La Grande Guerre dans les Vosges : sources et état des lieux, Actes du colloque tenu à Epinal du 4 au 6 septembre 2008, Conseil général des Vosges, 2009, 348 pages.
La guerre aérienne dans les Vosges. Société Philomatique Vosgienne, , 68 pages. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vosges mountains. La ville se développe avec la route des autorités françaises. Centre de subdélégation, elle rassemble administrations forestières, justices et surtout évêché érigé en 1777. La commune a connu un essor industriel entre 1830 et 1890.